Tuesday, October 27, 2009

Function to change case to sentence case in Excel 2007


How to Add a Custom Search Engine to Firefox's Search Bar (Windows Version)

Firefox has a Search Bar that is located to the right of the Address Bar, near the top of your Firefox window. It comes with Google, Yahoo, and some others pre-installed. If you have a website that you frequently visit, or a site that you would like to search more quickly, this tutorial will help you create a search engine that is customizable to the site of your choice.
It used to be a long and complicated process, but with Firefox 3, it's incredibly easy, such that a wikiHow article is hardly warranted, but a long article was here and needed to be updated with the simpler method, so here we are.
Hide these ads

1. Install the Add to Search Bar extension from Mozilla.
2. Restart Firefox.
3. Browse to a site you'd like to search from the search bar.
4. Right-click in that site's own search bar and choose Add to search bar.
5. Type the name you'd like Firefox to display when no search parameters are entered. This will appear in grey.
6. Accept the icon or browse to choose another on your PC.
7. Enter a keyword (optional).
8. Click OK.

* Alternately, browse to Mycroft Project to search for a pre-made search engine for Firefox.

Sunday, October 25, 2009

Install a program in a tar.gz package in Linux

When developers create a software or tool they generally develop it on one Linux distribution (the one they generally prefer working on) and release it for other distributions too. In some cases what you get is only a .tar.gz package and you have to install the required software from this package. In this article we will tell you how to install any software on Linux that comes in a .tar.gz package.

Step 1: Download the .tar.gz package of the Linux software you plan to install from it’s website.

Step 2: Extract the contents of the .tar.gz package to a folder using this command in a terminal:

tar xvzf your-package.tar.gz
Step 3: Navigate to the directory where you just extracted the files. In this directory you will find either or both the files named README and INSTALL. These files contain all the information you require to install the software on your system. For almost all packages you have to run the configure script that is included. To do so, type the following in a terminal:

Step 4: Now you have to make the installation script. This can again be done using the following command:

make install
Step 5: Finally you have to install the package, using this command:

Many packages will have a different procedure for installing them, the information about which will be suitably supplied in the README or INSTALL file as already mentioned in Step 3.

Friday, October 23, 2009

Special Wget commands

Wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from the Web. It supports http, https, and ftp protocols, as well as retrieval through http proxies. Every linux user use terminal, and using the terminal need from you to have some knowledge of command line, so today i choosed you a list of command line wget that perhaps you diden`t hear about them before.

1- Wget basic command list this surely you did hear see it and use it before:
cd picdir/ && wget -nd -pHEKk http://www.unixmen.com/me.jpg
Mean store the current browsable photo to the current picdir directory

wget -c http://www.unixmen/software.de

Download a file with the ability to stop the download and resume later
wget -r -nd -np -l1 -A '*.jpg' http://www.unixmen.com/dir/
Download a site of files to the current directory

wget -r www.example.com
Download an entire website

echo 'wget -c www.example.com/files.iso' | at 09:00
Start a download at any given time

wget ftp://remote/filex.iso/
The usage of FTP is as simple. Wget will take care of login and password

wget --limit-rate=30k
Limit download of a link in 30 Kb/s

wget -nv --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html
Check the links in a fi

wget --mirror http://www.example.com/
Update a local copy of a website

2- This wget command save a html page and convert it to a .pdf
wget $URL | htmldoc --webpage -f "$URL".pdf - ; xpdf "$URL".pdf &

3- Wget command to get photos from picasa Album :
wget 'link of a Picasa WebAlbum'
-O - |perl -e'while(<>){while(s/"media":{"content":\[{"url":"(.+?\.JPG)//){print
"$1\n"}}' |wget -w1 -i -

4-Check twitter if you can connect :
wget http://twitter.com/help/test.json -q -O -

5- Wget command to get all the Zips files and Pdf from a website :
wget --reject html,htm --accept pdf,zip -rl1 url

If the website use https then :
wget --reject html,htm --accept pdf,zip -rl1 --no-check-certificate https-url

6- Wget command to check if a remote file exist :
wget --spider -v http://www.server.com/path/file.ext

7- Wget command to download files from Rapideshare primium
wget -c -t 1 --load-cookies ~/.cookies/rapidshare

8- Wget command to extract a tarball file from a host without local saving :
wget -qO - "http://www.tarball.com/tarball.gz" | tar zxvf -

9- Block known dirty hosts from reaching your machine :
wget -qO - http://infiltrated.net/blacklisted|awk '!/#|[a-z]/&&/./{print "iptables -A INPUT -s "$1" -j DROP"}'

Blacklisted is a compiled list of all known dirty hosts (botnets, spammers, bruteforcers, etc.) which is updated on an hourly basis. This command will get the list and create the rules for you, if you want them automatically blocked, append |sh to the end of the command line. It's a more practical solution to block all and allow in specifics however, there are many who don't or can't do this which is where this script will come in handy. For those using ipfw, a quick fix would be {print "add deny ip from "$1" to any}. Posted in the sample output are the top two entries. Be advised the blacklisted file itself filters out RFC1918 addresses (10.x.x.x, 172.16-31.x.x, 192.168.x.x) however, it is advisable you check/parse the list before you implement the rules

10- Wget command to download the entire website :
wget --random-wait -r -p -e robots=off -U mozilla http://www.example.com

Thursday, October 22, 2009

List of PDF Editing tools for Ubuntu

This tutorial will give some useful pdf editing tools for ubuntu users.


flpsed is a WYSIWYG pseudo PostScript1 editor. “Pseudo”, because you can’t remove or modify existing elements of a document. But flpsed lets you add arbitrary text lines to existing PostScript 1 documents. Added lines can later be reedited with flpsed. Using pdftops, which is part of xpdf one can convert PDF documents to PostScript and also add text to them. flpsed is useful for filling in forms, adding notes etc. GsWidget is now part of flpsed.
flpsed is released under the GPL.


* Add arbitrary text to existing PostScript documents.
* Reedit text, that has been added with flpsed.
* The overall structure of the PostScript document is not modified. flpsed only adds the additional text.
* Batch processing (no X11 required) to modify tagged text lines that have been entered interactively with flpsed before. This is very useful for repeatedly filling in forms.
* Text lines can be imported from other flpsed-modified documents.
* Import and export PDF. Therefore it can be used as a PDF editor as well.

Install flpsed in ubuntu

sudo apt-get install flpsed


If PDF is electronic paper, then pdftk is an electronic staple-remover, hole-punch, binder, secret-decoder-ring, and X-Ray-glasses. Pdftk is a simple tool for doing everyday things with PDF documents. Keep one in the top drawer of your desktop and use it to:

Merge PDF Documents

Split PDF Pages into a New Document

Rotate PDF Pages or Documents

Decrypt Input as Necessary (Password Required)

Encrypt Output as Desired

Fill PDF Forms with FDF Data or XFDF Data and/or Flatten Forms

Apply a Background Watermark or a Foreground Stamp

Report on PDF Metrics such as Metadata, Bookmarks, and Page Labels

Update PDF Metadata

Attach Files to PDF Pages or the PDF Document

Unpack PDF Attachments

Burst a PDF Document into Single Pages

Uncompress and Re-Compress Page Streams

Repair Corrupted PDF (Where Possible)

Pdftk allows you to manipulate PDF easily and freely. It does not require Acrobat, and it runs on Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, FreeBSD and Solaris.

Install pdftk in ubuntu

sudo apt-get install pdftk


Merge Two or More PDFs into a New Document

pdftk 1.pdf 2.pdf 3.pdf cat output 123.pdf

or (Using Handles):

pdftk A=1.pdf B=2.pdf cat A B output 12.pdf

or (Using Wildcards):

pdftk *.pdf cat output combined.pdf

Split Select Pages from Multiple PDFs into a New Document

pdftk A=one.pdf B=two.pdf cat A1-7 B1-5 A8 output combined.pdf

Rotate the First Page of a PDF to 90 Degrees Clockwise

pdftk in.pdf cat 1E 2-end output out.pdf

Rotate an Entire PDF Document’s Pages to 180 Degrees

pdftk in.pdf cat 1-endS output out.pdf

Encrypt a PDF using 128-Bit Strength (the Default) and Withhold All Permissions (the Default)

pdftk mydoc.pdf output mydoc.128.pdf owner_pw foopass

Same as Above, Except a Password is Required to Open the PDF

pdftk mydoc.pdf output mydoc.128.pdf owner_pw foo user_pw baz

Same as Above, Except Printing is Allowed (after the PDF is Open)

pdftk mydoc.pdf output mydoc.128.pdf owner_pw foo user_pw baz allow printing

Decrypt a PDF

pdftk secured.pdf input_pw foopass output unsecured.pdf

Join Two Files, One of Which is Encrypted (the Output is Not Encrypted)

pdftk A=secured.pdf mydoc.pdf input_pw A=foopass cat output combined.pdf

Uncompress PDF Page Streams for Editing the PDF Code in a Text Editor

pdftk mydoc.pdf output mydoc.clear.pdf uncompress

Repair a PDF’s Corrupted XREF Table and Stream Lengths (If Possible)

pdftk broken.pdf output fixed.pdf

Burst a Single PDF Document into Single Pages and Report its Data to doc_data.txt

pdftk mydoc.pdf burst

Report on PDF Document Metadata, Bookmarks and Page Labels

pdftk mydoc.pdf dump_data output report.txt


Complete editing of pdf documents is made possible with PDFedit. You can change either raw pdf objects (for advanced users) or use predefined gui functions. Functions can be easily added as everything is based on a scripts.

Scripting is used to a great extent in editor and almost anything can be scripted, it is possible to create own scripts or plugins.

Install pdfedit in ubuntu

sudo apt-get install pdfedit

Using GIMP

Install krita using the following command

sudo apt-get install krita

Open the Gimp, and open the PDF document you wish to edit. For multiple page documents, it is easier on your computer to edit them one page at a time. If you choose more than one page, they will open in individual windows.

Make the necessary changes to the document.Save the document as a Gimp XCF file (you’ll have to save several different pages if it is a multi-page document). Close the document, then open the resulting image in Krita.

Printing to PDF with Krita Go to File>Print, then choose Print to PDF. In the same dialogue box, choose the destination folder and name of the output document (such as file1.pdf).


PDF Mod is a simple application for modifying PDF documents.

You can reorder, rotate, and remove pages, export images from a document, edit the title, subject, author, and keywords, and combine documents via drag and drop.


An Open Source vector graphics editor, with capabilities similar to Illustrator, CorelDraw, or Xara X, using the W3C standard Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) file format.
Inkscape supports many advanced SVG features (markers, clones, alpha blending, etc.) and great care is taken in designing a streamlined interface. It is very easy to edit nodes, perform complex path operations, trace bitmaps and much more. We also aim to maintain a thriving user and developer community by using open, community-oriented development.

Install inkscape in Ubuntu

sudo apt-get install inkscape

PDF Import Extension for Openoffice

The PDF Import Extension allows you to import and modify PDF documents. Best results with 100% layout accuracy can be achieved with the “PDF/ODF hybrid file” format, which this extension also enables. A hybrid PDF/ODF file is a PDF file that contains an embedded ODF source file. Hybrid PDF/ODF files will be opened in OpenOffice.org as an ODF file without any layout changes. Users without this extension can open the PDF part of the hybrid file with their PDF viewer.

The PDF Import Extension also allows you to import and modify PDF documents for non hybrid PDF/ODF files. PDF documents are imported in Draw to preserve the layout and to allow basic editing. This is the perfect solution for changing dates, numbers or small portions of text with a minimum loss of formatting information for simple formatted documents.


* Text attributes like font family, font size, weight (bold, not bold), style (italic, not italic) are imported together with their respective text
* Retain font appearance, when a PDF file uses a font not installed on your system, the font is replaced with the best alternative font
* Converts images and vector graphics
* Each line in a paragraph is converted into one text object
* Import of password-protected PDF files
* Import shapes with default style
* Support for colors and bitmaps
* Backgrounds remain behind other elements

Not supported:

* Native PDF forms
* Proper paragraphs
* Processing layout of LaTeX PDF
* Import of complex vector graphics elements
* Conversion of tables
* Import of EPS graphics
* RTL (right-to-left) text/font support

Download PDF Import Extension for openoffice from here


PDF-Shuffler is a small python-gtk application, which helps the user to merge or split pdf documents and rotate, crop and rearrange their pages using an interactive and intuitive graphical interface. It is a frontend for python-pyPdf.

Install PDF-Shuffler in ubuntu

Edit the /etc/apt/sources.list file

gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

For Jaunty users add following lines

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/pdfshuffler/ppa/ubuntu jaunty main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/pdfshuffler/ppa/ubuntu jaunty main

For Intrepid users add following lines

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/pdfshuffler/ppa/ubuntu intrepid main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/pdfshuffler/ppa/ubuntu intrepid main

For Hardy users add following lines

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/pdfshuffler/ppa/ubuntu hardy main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/pdfshuffler/ppa/ubuntu hardy main

Save and exit the file

Download GPG key

sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 4F4EE17E

Update sourcelist

sudo apt-get update

Install pdf-shuffler

sudo apt-get install pdfshuffler

Other tools



MS Word - Delete All Headers and Footers

Repetitious, time-consuming tasks are always a prime candidate for macros; this is no exception. The following macro will zip right through each section of a document, deleting all the headers and footers that have been defined.

Sub RemoveHeadAndFoot()
Dim oSec As Section
Dim oHead As HeaderFooter
Dim oFoot As HeaderFooter

For Each oSec In ActiveDocument.Sections
For Each oHead In oSec.Headers
If oHead.Exists Then oHead.Range.Delete
Next oHead

For Each oFoot In oSec.Footers
If oFoot.Exists Then oFoot.Range.Delete
Next oFoot
Next oSec
End Sub

Tuesday, October 20, 2009

File Access Permissions on Linux

File protection with chmod
chmod 400 file To protect a file against accidental overwriting.
chmod 500 dir To protect yourself from accidentally removing, renaming or moving files from this directory.
chmod 600 file A private file only changeable by the user who entered this command.
chmod 644 file A publicly readable file that can only be changed by the issuing user.
chmod 660 file Users belonging to your group can change this files, others don't have any access to it at all.
chmod 700 file Protects a file against any access from other users, while the issuing user still has full access.
chmod 755 dir For files that should be readable and executable by others, but only changeable by the issuing user.
chmod 775 file Standard file sharing mode for a group.
chmod 777 file Everybody can do everything to this file.

Special modes sticky bit
• sticky bit
– chmod +t
• when set on
– file: if sticky bit set, after job execution, the command is kept in memory
– directory: can only change files in this dir when user is owner of the file or has appropriate permissions see /tmp

Special modes set id
• set user id bit SUID
– chmod u+s
• set group id bit (SGID)
– chmod g+s
• when set on
– binary file: when run it runs with the group and or user of the file not the group/user of the person running it.
– directory: (SGID only) every file created in the directory takes same group as the directory, not the creator's group.
note: existing and copied files keep their group id)

Special modes numeric (octal) representation
0 setuid, setgid, sticky bits are cleared
1 sticky bit is set
2 setgid bit is set
3 setgid and sticky bits are set
4 setuid bit is set
5 setuid and sticky bits are set
6 setuid and setgid bits are set
7 setuid, setgid, sticky bits are set

Special modes textual representation
• SUID: If set, then replaces "x" in the owner permissions to "s", if owner has execute ermissions, or to "S" otherwise. Examples:
-rws------ both owner execute and SUID are set
-r-S------ SUID is set, but owner execute is not set
• SGID: If set, then replaces "x" in the group permissions to "s", if group has execute permissions, or to "S" otherwise. Examples:
-rwxrws--- both group execute and SGID are set
-rwxr-S--- SGID is set, but group execute not set
• Sticky bit: If set, then replaces "x" in the others permissions to "t", if others have execute permissions, or to "T" otherwise. Examples:
-rwxrwxrwt both others execute and sticky bit are set
-rwxrwxr-T sticky bit is set, but others execute is not set

Monday, October 19, 2009

MySQL Data Types

The data types used in MySQL for storing text strings are:

  • CHAR: used for columns with values of an exact length

    Ex: CHAR(2) for state abbreviations like "PA" and "NY"
  • VARCHAR: used for columns with values of variable lengths up to 255

    Ex: VARCHAR(25) for names
  • TEXT: used for free-form text such as comments of up to ~65000 characters
  • MEDIUMTEXT: free-form text of up to ~1.6 million characters
  • LONGTEXT: free-form text of up to ~4 trillion characters

The data types for storing integers are shown in the table below.  As the table shows, columns of these types can be signed or unsigned.  Unsigned columns can only hold positive values.  Signed columns can hold both positive and negative values.

Type Signed Range Unsigned Range
TINYINT -128 to 128 0 to 255
SMALLINT -32768 to 32767 0 to 65535
MEDIUMINT -8.3M to 8.3M 0 to 16M
INT -2.1B to 2.1B 0 to 4.2B
BIGINT > ±2.1B > 4.2B

 For numbers that have digits after the decimal point, there are two main data types:

  • FLOAT: used for numbers with up to 7 significant digits
  • DOUBLE: used for numbers with up to 16 significant digits

The data type limits above are approximate in many cases.

Macro to import text into Excel - more than 65,000 rows

Sub ImportLargeFileADO()
'Imports text file into Excel workbook using ADO.
'If the number of records exceeds 65536 then it splits it over more than one sheet.

Dim strFilePath As String, strFilename As String, strFullPath As String
Dim lngCounter As Long
Dim oConn As Object, oRS As Object, oFSObj As Object

'Get a text file name
strFullPath = Application.GetOpenFilename("Text Files (*.txt),*.txt", , "Please select text file...")

If strFullPath = "False" Then Exit Sub 'User pressed Cancel on the open file dialog

'This gives us a full path name e.g. C:\temp\folder\file.txt
'We need to split this into path and file name

strFilePath = oFSObj.GetFile(strFullPath).ParentFolder.path
strFilename = oFSObj.GetFile(strFullPath).Name

'Open an ADO connection to the folder specified
Set oConn = CreateObject("ADODB.CONNECTION")
oConn.Open "Provider=Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0;" & _
"Data Source=" & strFilePath & ";" & _
"Extended Properties=""text;HDR=Yes;FMT=Delimited"""

Set oRS = CreateObject("ADODB.RECORDSET")

'Now actually open the text file and import into Excel
oRS.Open "SELECT * FROM " & strFilename, oConn, 3, 1, 1
While Not oRS.EOF
ActiveSheet.Range("A1").CopyFromRecordset oRS, 65536


End Sub

Another Microsoft official macro

'All lines that begin with an apostrophe (') are remarks and are not
'required for the macro to run.
Sub LargeFileImport()

'Dimension Variables
Dim ResultStr As String
Dim FileName As String
Dim FileNum As Integer
Dim Counter As Double
'Ask User for File's Name
FileName = InputBox("Please enter the Text File's name, e.g. test.txt")
'Check for no entry
If FileName = "" Then End
'Get Next Available File Handle Number
FileNum = FreeFile()
'Open Text File For Input
Open FileName For Input As #FileNum
'Turn Screen Updating Off
Application.ScreenUpdating = False
'Create A New WorkBook With One Worksheet In It
Workbooks.Add template:=xlWorksheet
'Set The Counter to 1
Counter = 1
'Loop Until the End Of File Is Reached
Do While Seek(FileNum) <= LOF(FileNum)
'Display Importing Row Number On Status Bar
Application.StatusBar = "Importing Row " & _
Counter & " of text file " & FileName
'Store One Line Of Text From File To Variable
Line Input #FileNum, ResultStr
'Store Variable Data Into Active Cell
If Left(ResultStr, 1) = "=" Then
ActiveCell.Value = "'" & ResultStr
ActiveCell.Value = ResultStr
End If

'For xl97 and later change 16384 to 65536
If ActiveCell.Row = 16384 Then
'If On The Last Row Then Add A New Sheet
'If Not The Last Row Then Go One Cell Down
ActiveCell.Offset(1, 0).Select
End If
'Increment the Counter By 1
Counter = Counter + 1
'Start Again At Top Of 'Do While' Statement
'Close The Open Text File
'Remove Message From Status Bar
Application.StatusBar = False

End Sub

Sunday, October 18, 2009

PHP String Triming from left and right

PHP String Triming from left and right
We can remove blank space from left side of any string by using ltrim function.
$text= " This is my text";

echo $text;


echo $text;
Same way we can remove blank space from right side of any string by using rtrim function.

$text= " This is my text";
echo $text;
echo $text; To remove extra blank space, line break, carriage return from both sides ( left and right ) of a string we can use trim function
$text= " This string has blank space at both sides ";
echo $text;
echo $text;

Open OpenXML files

Microsoft introduced the .docx file format in its new Office and Word applications and wants it to replace the commonly used doc format. The problem with the change from doc to docx is that many users are still working with prior versions of Word or no Microsoft product at all and face the problem that they can’t load the docx file because it is not supported in their application.
The main question for those users is of course how they would open a docx file to be able to read and work with it. The answer is that it depends on what program and computer the user is working with. Let me outline several possibilities to open and work with docx file without using the latest Microsoft Office or Word software.
Older versions of Microsoft Office or Microsoft Word:
Older versions such as Office XP do not support the docx format because it was not known when they were developed and sold. A simple way to read docx and xlsx files in those applications would be to install the Microsoft Compatibility Pack which adds support for the new file formats.

Open Office
You can use the Open XML Translator for Open Office to be able to read and edit docx files with Open Office.

Online Solution
The docx converter lets you convert docx documents online. This is a pretty good solution if you don’t want to install the previously mentioned add-ons.

You might want to use the Online Solution above or download a desktop widget from the same developers. If you happen to use Microsoft Office on your Mac you might want to take a look at the Microsoft Office Open XML File Format Converter for Mac.

The best suited method to open .docx documents depends largely on your computer system. Are you using a Macintosh, Linux or Windows ? Do you have an old version of Microsoft Office installed ? What’s the purpose of opening the docx document, do you only want to read it or do you have to edit it as well ?
The best way for Windows users who have a version of Microsoft Office installed is to install the Microsoft compatibility pack for previous Office versions that adds .docx support in Microsoft Word.
The best approach for users that do not use Microsoft Office, including Mac and Linux users, would be to use one of the several online converters that convert docx files into doc.
Windows users could also download the Word Viewer application from Microsoft that opens .docx documents properly but cannot alter them.
Last but not least it is possible to use the OpenOffice. OpenXML Translator to open docx documents if you have the Novell version of Open Office installed.

Batch Process Photos with Phatch

Virtually any photo manager out there lets you perform mundane tasks like adjusting contrast, adding a watermark, or applying effects to your photos. But even the most powerful applications like digiKam or F-Spot can’t really help you when you need to perform the same action (or a sequence of actions) on dozens or hundreds of photos. For those tasks you need a batch processing utility like Phatch. This nifty tool can perform no less than 35 different actions on your photos, and its user-friendly graphical interface makes it easy to create advanced multi-step batch rules (or action lists in Phatch’s parlance).
If you are using Ubuntu, installing Phatch is as easy as downloading its .deb package and double-clicking on it. If you want to be able to view EXIF and IPTC data, you should also install the python-pyexiv2 package, and for a “cool nautilus integration” Phatch’s Web site recommends installing the python-nautilus package. Unlike conventional image editing applications, Phatch doesn’t allow you to edit photos directly — instead, you use it to set up actions. An action in Phatch is a single operation that the application performs on the photos that are fed into it. Each action offers a number of options: for example, the Scale action allows you to specify the width and height, resolution, and resampling algorithm. You can add as many actions as you like, and the project’s wiki ( http://photobatch.wikidot.com/actions) provides a list of all actions supported by the Phatch.
To add an action to Phatch, press the Add Action button and select the desired action from the list. You can narrow the list to a specific action type by selecting a category from the Select drop-down list. Alternatively, you can use the Search feature to search for a particular action. In this case, choose the Scale action and press the Add button. This adds the selected action to the main window, and you can use the available options to tweak the action.
For the Scale action, for example, you can choose to scale down the photo by a specified percentage value or to a predefined size measured in pixels. If you wish to change the image resolution or resampling algorithm, you can do so by adjusting the appropriate options. Once you are satisfied with the settings, you can add the next action and specify its options. In a similar manner, you can add other desired actions.
Finally, you have to add the mandatory Save action: without it, Phatch wouldn’t know where to save the processed photos. Besides options such as output format and quality, the Save action also offers a set of variables that you can use to specify a destination for the processed photos. For example, using the default _phatch/ variable, Phatch saves the processed images in a separate folder inside the source directory. The /phatch/// variable, in turn, creates a directory structure based on the current date. By the way, you can rearrange the actions in the list using drag-and-drop. This, of course, doesn’t apply to the Save action that must always be the last action on the list.
To process photos using the created action list, press the Execute button, choose the directory containing the photos you want to process, and press the Batch button. You should then see the processed photos in the destination directory. While using the Execute command every time you want to run photos through Phatch is not that difficult, the application offers another nifty feature that makes the batch process even more straightforward. Choose View -> Droplet, and Phatch turns into a floating icon. Drag photos onto it, and Phatch processes them using the currently opened action list.
Although Phatch is first and foremost a GUI tool, you can run it from the command line, so you can automate the batch execution and put Phatch to some interesting uses. For example, you can turn your computer into a batch photo processing server, and you can find a more detailed description of how this can be done at Phatch’s wiki .

Wednesday, October 14, 2009

Aikido dictionary

Agatsu = Self victory
Ai = Harmony or unification
Ai Hanmi = Mutual stance
Ai Nuke = Mutual escape
Ai Uchi = Mutual kill
Aigame Ate = Regular stance attack, 2nd teaching of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Atemi Waza)
Aiki = Blending or harmonising of Ki
Aiki Nage = Aiki throw, throws by body movement only
Aiki Otoshi = Aiki drop, entering deeply and picking up Uke’s leg
Aiki Taiso = Basic Aikido co-ordination exercises
Aikido = The way of harmony with Ki
Aikidoka = A practitioner of Aikido
Aikuchi = Tanto style blade, mounted with no Tsuba for women to carry
Ashi = Sometimes means leg, sometimes means foot
Ashi Sabaki = Footwork
Ashibo Kake Uke = Leg hooking block
Atemi = Strike to the weak points of the body
Atemi Waza = Striking techniques (1st set of techniques from Tomiki Kihon No Kata)
Awase = Partner practice
Aya Dori = Cross shaped entanglement throw, also known as Juji Garame
Ayumi-Ashi = Crossing feet (normal walking), also known as Hiraki Ashi
Bo = Wooden staff about 6 feet in length
Bokken = Wooden sword, also known as Bukoto
Budo = Martial way
Bukoto = Wooden sword, also known as bokken
Bushido = The way of the warrior
Chidori Ashi = Cross-over feet (zig-zag step)
Chikara = Power
Chikara No Dashikata = Extension of power
Chokusen = Direct
Chokusen No Irimi = Direct entry
Chudan = Middle position
Chushin = Center
Dai Gokyo = See Gokyo
Dai Ikkyo = See Ikkyo
Dai Nikyo = See Nikyo
Dai Rokyo = See Rokyo
Dai Sankyo = See Sankyo
Dai Yonkyo = See Yonkyo
Dan = Black belt rank
Dan Zuki = Consecutive punching
Datotsushu = Strikes, punches and kicks
Datsu Ryoku = Without strength, relaxed
Deshi = Student, disciple
Do = Way/path
Dogi = Training costume, also known as Gi or Keiko Gi
Dojo = Literally place of the way
Dojo Cho = The head of the dojo
Domo Arigato Gozaimashita = Thank you very much (said at end of practise)
Doozo = Please, go ahead
Doshu = Grand master or head of the way
Empi Uchi = Elbow strike
Engi = Interdependent origination
Eri = Collar
Eri Tori = Collar grab
Fudo Dachi = Rooted stance
Fudo No Shisei = Immoveable posture, mind focused on one point, body relaxed and Ki flowing
Fukushidoin = Assistant instructor
Fumikomi Geri = Stamping kick
Funekogi Undo = Rowing exercise, moving voiced meditation for breathing and posture, also known as Torifune
Furi Kaburi = Sword raising movement
Futari Gake = Two man attack, also known as Ni Nin Gake
Gaeshi = Outward turning movement or counter, to reverse to rotate, to revolve, also known as Tenkai, Kaeshi, or Kaiten
Gamae = A posture or stance of readiness either with or without weapon, also known as Hanmi or Kamae
Gatame = Armlocks
Gedan = Lower position
Gedan Ate = Lower part attack, 4th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Atemi Waza)
Gendaito = Modern sword (made roughly in the 20th century)
Geri = Kick
Gi = Training costume, also known as dogi or Keiko Gi
Giri (1) = Cut, also known as Kiri
Giri (2) = Obligation or debt
Gokyo = 5th teaching, Ude Nobashi or arm stretch, also known as Dai Gokyo, Gokyo Ude Nobashi
Gokyo Ude Nobashi = See Gokyo
Gou No Keiko = To practise hard with full strength, mostly with basic techniques, see also Jyu No Keiko and Ryu No Keiko
Gyaku Hanmi = Opposing stance
Gyaku Yokomen Uchi = Reverse vertical strike to side of head
Gyukugamae Ate = Reverse stance attack, 3rd teaching of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Atemi Waza)
Hachiji Dachi = Open leg stance
Haishin Undo = After practise back bending exercise
Haishu = Backhand
Haishu Uke = Backhand block
Haito = Ridge hand
Hajime = Begin
Hajime = Please start
Hakama = Divided skirt usually worn by black-belt ranks
Hanashi Waza = Escape from holds, also known as Hazushi Waza
Hangetsu Dachi = Half moon or hourglass stance
Hanmi = A posture or stance of readiness either with or without weapon, also known as Kamae or Gamae
Hanmi Handachi = Position with Nage sitting, Uke standing, also known as Hanza Hantachi
Hantai = In reverse order
Hanza Hantachi = Position with Nage sitting, Uke standing, also known as Hanmi Handachi
Happo = Eight directions
Happo Giri = Eight direcion cutting
Happo Undo = Eight direction exercise
Hara = Body’s center of mass, centre of life energy
Harai = A movement to sweep opponents sword or jo away or down also refers to sweeping opponents legs
Hasso = Posture with sword or jo held vertically at right shoulder, see also Hasso No Kamae
Hasso Gaeshi = Movement from basic stance to Hasso posture
Hasso No Kamae = Figure eight stance, posture with sword or jo held vertically at right shoulder, see also Hasso No Kamae
Hazushi Waza = Escape from holds, also known as Hanashi Waza
Henka Waza = Varied technique especially beginning one technique and changing to another in mid-execution
Hidari = Left
Hidari Gamae = Left stance, also known as Hidari Hanmi
Hidari Hanmi = Left stance, also known as Hidari Gamae
Hiji = Elbow
Hiji Jime = Elbow lock, also known as Ude Higishi or arm smashing, see Rokyo
Hiji Ki = Elbow power
Hiji Shime = See Hiji Jime
Hiji Tori = Elbow hold
Hiji Waza = Elbow techniques (2nd set of techniques from Tomiki Kihon No Kata)
Hiki Otoshi = Pull drop, 17th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Uki Waza)
Hiki Taoshi = Pull down, 8th technique from Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Hiji Waza)
Hiki Tate Geiko = Freestyle practise with some resitance between partners
Hineri Waza = Throws by twisting Ukes head
Hiraki Ashi = Crossing feet (normal walking), also known as Ayumi Ashi
Hiriki = Elbow power
Hitomei = Equal stance with feet parallel, also known as Mu Gamae
Hitori Waza = Invisible partner practice
Hiza = Knee
Hombu Dojo = A term used to refer to the central dojo of an organization
Iaito = Dull katana
Ikkyo = 1st teaching, Ude Osae or arm pin, also known as Dai Ikkyo, Ikkyo Ude Osae and in Tomiki Aikido Oshi Taoshi or push down
Ikkyo Ude Osae = See Ikkyo
Irimi = Entering movement with a step or slide
Irimi Nage (Shomen) = Entering throw (front approach), sometimes called 20 year technique
Irimi Nage (Sokumen) = Entering throw (side approach), sometimes called 20 year technique, in Tomiki Aikido known as Gyakugamae Ate or reverse stance strike
Irimi Tenkan = Entering and turning, sometimes called Tai Sabaki
Jiyu Waza = Free-style practice of techniques, free form techniques
Jo = Wooden staff about 4'-5' in length
Jo Dosa = Jo exercises
Jo Tori = Jo taking exercises or techniques
Jodan = Upper position
Jodan Gaeshi = Circular movement with jo aimed at upper part of opponents body
Joseki = Upper side of the mats
Joza = Seat of honour, upper seat of mat, also known as Kamiza
Juji = Crossing of the hands
Juji Garame = Cross shaped entanglement throw, also known as Aya Dori
Juji Jime = Cross-hand choke
Jumbi Taiso = Collective term given to Aikido exercises
Jyu Nana Hon No Kata = 17 basic techniques of Tomiki Aikido, also known as Kihon Waza or Kihon No Kata
Jyu No Keiko = To practise softly with principle of nonresistance but still practising attack and defence, see also Gou No Keiki and Ryu On Keiko
Kachihayabi = Victory at the speed of sunlight
Kado Nage = Thows to the front corner
Kaeshi = Outward turning movement or counter, to reverse, to rotate, to revolve, also known as Gaeshi, Tenkai, or Kaiten
Kaeshi Waza = Reversals, escaping from techniques, counter attack techniques
Kaiten = Outward turning movement or counter, to reverse, to rotate, to revolve, also known as Gaeshi, Kaeshi, or Tenkai
Kaiten Ashi = Forward step forward with back foot and pivot
Kaiten Nage (Soto) = Rotary throw (outside), also known as Tenkai Nage (Soto), in Tomiki Aikido known as Ude Hineri or arm twist
Kaiten Nage (Uchi) = Rotary throw (inside), also known as Tenkai Nage (Uchi)
Kakae Dori = Bearhug grab from behind
Kakari Geiko = Freestyle practice with no resistance and usually only basic style techniques
Kamae = A posture or stance of readiness either with or without weapon, also known as Hanmi or Gamae
Kamiza (1) = A small Shrine frequently located at the front of a dojo
Kamiza (2) = Seat of honour, upper seat of mat, also known as Joza
Kansetsu Waza = Joint manipulation techniques
Kao Tsuki = Punch to face
Kata (1) = A form or prescribed pattern of movement
Kata (2) = Shoulder
Kata Ju Ji Jime = Left hand to left lapel (four fingers inside, thumb outside and pointing up), right hand over left to right lapel (four fingers outside, thumb inside and pointing down)
Kata Tori = One hand grab to shoulder
Katame Waza = Locking and pinning techniques, also known as Osae Waza
Katana = What is vulgarly called a samurai sword
Katate Tori = One hand grab to wrist
Katate Tori Ryote Mochi = Two hands grab to wrist or two hands grab to two wrists
Katsu Jin Ken = The sword that saves life
Keiko = Study or practice, training with spirit and commitment
Keiko Gi = Training costume (formal name), also known as Gi or dogi
Ken Koshiita = Back plate for hakama
Ken Suburi = Sword matching exercises
Ken Tori = Sword taking
Kenkyo = Confidence with modesty
Kensho = Enlightenment see also Mokuso and Satori
Kesa = Sash worn diagonally across the chest by Buddist priests
Kesa Giri = Cutting through the body diagonally across the chest
Keta Tsuki = Kick to stomach
Ki = Combined mind, spirit and energy vital-force, essence of universal creative energy
Ki Ga Nukeru = Loss of Ki
Ki Musubi No Tachi = Sword of uniting Ki
Ki No Musubi = Uniting Ki with that of opponents
Ki No Nagare = Flow of Ki
Ki Wo Dasu = Allowing Ki to flow
Ki Wo Neru = Training Ki by visualising it
Ki Wo Totonoeru = Preparation of Ki by maintaining calmness, breathing correctly and focussing mind
Kiai = A shout delivered for the purpose of focussing all of one’s energy
Kihon Dosa = Fundamental movement
Kihon No Kata = The 17 basic techniques of Tomiki Aikido, also known as Jyu Nana Hon Kata and Kihon Waza
Kihon Waza (1) = The most formal way of doing a technique or demonstrating it
Kihon Waza (2) = The 17 basic techniques of Tomiki Aikido, also known as Jyu Nana Hon Kata and Kihon No Kata
Kime = Bending the joint in the direction of natural movment
Kimi = Pressure point, see Yonkyo
Kimi Osae = Forearm pin, see Yonkyo
Kiri = Cut, also known as Giri
Kiri Gaeshi = Large diagonal cut, sword finishing in Wake Gamae position
Kiri Otoshi = Dropping cut
Kiza = Sitting stance (seiza up on toes)
Kogeki = Attack
Kohai = A student junior to oneself
Koho Tento Undo = Backward roll
Koho Ukemi Undo = Backward roll
Kokoro = Heart or mind
Kokyu = Breath, power of breath and life force, co-ordination of Ki flow and breathing
Kokyu Ho = Breath power exercise
Kokyu Ho Undo = Wrist lead exercise
Kokyu Nage = Breath throw
Kokyu No Henka = Breath changes
Kokyu Ryoku No Yosei Ho = Breath power development exercise
Kokyu Tenkan Ho = Breath turning exercise
Kosa Dori = Cross grip to lapels of Gi
Koshi = Hip
Koshi Nage = Hip throw
Koshin = Moving backwards
Kote (1) = Wrist, also known as Tekubi
Kote (2) = Gloves or gauntlets used in Iaido and Kendo
Kote Gaeshi (1) = Wrist out turn
Kote Gaeshi (2) = Reverse wrist twist, 12th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Tekubi Waza)
Kote Hineri (1) = Wrist twist, see Sankyo
Kote Hineri (2) = Wrist twist, 11th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Tekubi Waza)
Kote Mawashi = Wrist in turn, see Nikyo
Koto = Old sword (made before about 1573)
Kotodama = Spiritual function of sound
Kubi = Neck
Kuchi = Mouth
Kumi Jo = Partner practise matching of jo, two person jo practises
Kumi Ken = Partner practise matching of Ken, two person sword practises, also known as Kumi Tachi
Kumi Tachi = Partner practise matching of Ken, two person sword practises, also known as Kumi Ken
Kuzushi = Balance breaking techniques
Kuzushin = Disruption of balance
Kyuu = White belt rank, any rank below Shodan, also known as Mudansha
Kyusho Points = Acupuncture or acupressure points
Maai = Proper distancing or timing
Mae = Front
Mae Eri tori = Grab to collar from front
Mae Geri = Front snap kick
Mae Otoshi = Front drop, 15th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Uki Waza)
Mae Ukemi = Forward rolling breakfall, also known as Zempo Kaiten Undo, Zempo Ukemi Undo, Zempo Kaiten Ukemi
Maki Otoshi = Throw over Nages shoulder resulting in Nage on one knee
Marui = Circular motion
Me = Eye
Men (1) = Head, specifically striking point on head
Men (2) = Straight sword cut onto forehead
Men Tsuki = Thrust to head, also known as Men Uchi
Men Uchi = Thrust to head, also known as Men Tsuki
Metsuke = Eye contact
Migi = Right
Migi Gamae = Right stance, also known as Migi Hanmi
Migi Hanmi = Right stance, also known as Migi Gamae
Misogi = Ritual purification of mind, body and spirit
Mitsubushi = Strike to the eyes with the back of the fist
Mochi = Grip
Mokuso = Meditation, see also Kensho and Satori
Morote Tori = Two hands grab to one wrist
Mu Gamae = Equal stance with feet parallel, also known as Hitomei
Mudansha = Students without black-belt ranking also known as Kyuu grades
Mune = Chest
Mune Tori = Hold the chest
Mune Tsuki = Thrust or punch to chest
Mushin = No mind, state of mind uninterupted by thought, mind without ego like a mirror reflects but does not judge
Musubi = Process of unification, opposites are but different images of same reality
Nafudakake = Student name board in dojo
Nagare = Flowing
Nagare Gaeshi = Strike to front and then strike or thrust to rear in one flowing movement
Nage = To throw
Nage = Person who is throwing or executing the technique, also known as Tori
Nage No Kata = Throwing kata
Nage Waza = Throwing techniques
Nai Kan Gyu = Silence and action, training which teaches to still the mind and see inside
Ne Waza = Grappling techniques
Ni Nin Gake = Two man attack, also known as Futari Gake
Nikyo = 2nd teaching, Kote Mawashi or wrist in turn, also known as Dai Nikyo, Nikyo Kote Mawashi
Nikyo Kote Mawashi = See Nikyo
Ninjyo = Compassion
Nogare = Series of breathing exercises to bring calmness in face of attack
Nukitsuke = Drawing the sword
O-Sensei = Founder of Aikido, Morihei Ueshiba, literally great teacher
Obi = A belt
Oji Waza = To block then counter attack
Oku eri tori = Grab to collar from behind
Okuri eri jime = Right hand grab to right wrist and choke from behind with left hand grab to right lapel
Omoiyari = Mind of concern for others feelings, safety and situation
Omote = The front
Onegai Shimasu = I welcome you to train with me (said at beginning of practice)
Osae = Press, push, pin, to immobilise
Osae Waza = Locking and pinning techniques, also known as Katame Waza
Oshi Taoshi = Push down, 6th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Hiji Waza), see also Ikkyo
Otonashi No Ken = Sword of no sword
Otoshi = To drop
Randori = Free practise, free style all out training
Rei = Bow
Reigi = Ettiquette
Ren Zuki = Alternated punch
Renshu = Practise, ren (repeat) shu (learn) or learn by repeating
Renzoku Tenkan Ho = Continuous body turning
Renzoku Waza = Series techniques
Riai = Relationship between methods using Ken/Jo/Taijutsu
Ritsu rei = Bow from standing position
Rokkutsu = Rib
Rokyo = 6th teaching, Hiji Jime or elbow lock, also known as Ude Higishi or arm smashing, Dai Rokyo, Rokyo Hiji Jime, Rokyo Ude Higishi and in Tomiki Aikido Waki Gatame or arm lock
Rokyo Hiji Jime = See Rokyo
Rokyo Ude Higishi = See Rokyo
Ryokata Tori = Both shoulders grabbed from front
Ryoku = Power
Ryote = Both hands
Ryote Tori = Both wrists grabbed from front
Ryu = Style or school of martial art
Ryu No Keiko = To practise very softly as running water with no attack or defence, no opposition between partners but focusing on perfect harmony and peace, this practise is usually only possible for high dan grades, see also Gou No Keiko and Jyu No Keiko
Sabaki = Body manoeuvres, movement
Sageto = Feet together, sword in left hand, blade up and tip down and facing backwards
Samurai = From the verb to serve, warrior class, replaced the term Bushi during Muromachi Period 1392-1573AD
San Nin Gake = Three man attack
Sankaku Tai = Triangular form (as in stances)
Sankyo = 3rd teaching, Kote Hineri or wrist twist, also known as Dai Sankyo, Sankyo Kote Hineri and in Tomiki Aikido Tenkai Kote Hineri or rotating wrist twist
Sankyo Kote Hineri = See Sankyo
Satori = Enlightenment, see also Mokuso and Kenshoo
Saya = Scabbard
Sayu Undo = Arm swing lateral (left to right) extension exercise
Seiza = Sitting posture on one’s knees
Sempai = A student senior to oneself
Senaka = Back
Sensei = Teacher
Senshin = Purified and cleansed heart and spirit, enlightened attitude
Setsu Nin To = The sword that kills
Setsuzoku = Connection
Shiai = Match or contest
Shidoin = A formal title meaning instructor, usually 3rd dan and above
Shihan = A formal title meaning master instructor, usually 6th dan and above
Shiho Nage = 4 directional throw, in Tomiki Aikido known as Tenkai Kote Gaeshi or rotating reverse wrist twist
Shikaku = Position relative to one’s partner where it is difficult for partner to continue to attack
Shikko = Samurai walking or knee walking
Shimoseki = Lower side of the mat
Shimoza = Lower seat of the mat
Shinai = Split bamboo practice sword for Kendo
Shinkenshobu = Duel with live swords
Shinnyo = Thusness or suchness
Shintai = Straight motion
Shinshinto = New sword (made between about 1760 and 1900
Shinto = The way of the gods, the indigenous religion of Japan
Shizentai = Natural stance or posture
Shomen = Front or top of head also the designated front of a dojo
Shomen Ate = Frontal attack, 1st teaching of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Atemi Waza)
Shomen Uchi = Straight vertical strike to forehead
Shoshin = Beginners mind each time you are Uke or Nage
Shugyu = Day to day struggle, work
Shuto = Knife hand
Shuuchuu = Concentration
Shuuchuu Ryoku = Concentration of power
Shuumatsu Doosa = Fixing movment
Sode Dori = Cuff or sleeve held
Sotai Dosa = Paired exercises
Sotei = Assumption, training with imaginary or shadow partners
Soto = Outside
Suburi = Exercises for co-ordination of arm and foot movements, usually to develop basic cuts and thrusts in Buki Waza
Sudori = Attacker effectively throws himself with an excess of power
Sudori Nage = A momentum throw
Sukashi Waza = Techniques performed without allowing the attacker to complete a grab or to initiate a strike
Suki = An opening or gap where one is vulnerable to attack
Sukui Nage = A scooping throw
Sumi Gaeshi = Corner throw
Sumi Otoshi = Corner drop, 16th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Uki Waza)
Sutemi = To throw away the body, techniques accomplished by sacrificing the body
Suwari = Seated
Suwari Waza = Techniques executed with both Uke and Nage in a seated position
Ta Ninsu Gake = Training against multiple attackers
Tachi (1) = From standing position
Tachi (2) = A type of Japanese long sword intended to be worn edge down
Tachi Tori = Sword taking
Tachi Waza = Standing techniques
Tai Atari = Entering and blocking
Tai Atari Uchi Otoshi = Entering deeply into Yokomen Uchi throwing Uke backwards
Tai Gi = Usually six techniques done in sequence in Ki Aikido
Tai No Henka = Body changes
Tai No Henko = Basic blending practice, turning 180 degrees, body changes
Tai No Tenkan Ho = Body turning
Tai Sabaki = Body movement, avoidance, circular movement
Taijutsu = Body arts, unarmed practice, empty handed techniques
Taiso = Basic exercise
Takemusu Aikido = Enlightened Aikido
Tanden = Centre
Tandoku Dosa = Solo exercises
Tandoku undo = Hand and foot movement exercises
Tanren = Striking practise with sword, jo or bokken, repetition of same cut
Tanto (1) = Wooden practice knife
Tanto (2) = Small knife
Tanto Tori = Knife taking
Tatami = Traditional woven straw mats in dojo
Te = Hand
Tegatana = Hand sword, outer edge of hand when used as if the blade of a sword
Teisho = Heel palm
Teisho Uke = Heel palm block
Tekubi = Wrist or hand neck, also known as Kote
Tekubi Joho Kosa = High wrist break
Tekubi Josa Undo = High wrist break exercise
Tekubi Kansetsu Junan Ho = Wrist joint flexibility exercises
Tekubi Kosa Undo = Double wrist break exercise
Tekubi Osae = Forearm pin, see Yonkyo
Tekubi Shindo = Wrist shaking exercise
Tekubi Waza = Wrist techniques, (3rd set of techniques from Tomiki Kihon No Kata)
Tenchi Nage = Heaven and earth throw
Tenkai = Outward turning movement or counter, to reverse to rotate, to revolve, also known as Gaeshi, Kaeshi, or Kaiten
Tenkai Ashi = Pivot on both feet
Tenkai Kote Gaeshi = Rotating reverse wrist twist, 14th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Tekubi Waza), also known as Shiho Nage
Tenkai Kote Hineri = Rotating wrist twist, 13th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Tekubi Waza), see also Sankyo
Tenkai nage (soto) = Rotary throw (outside), also known as Kaiten Nage (Soto), in Tomiki Aikido known as Ude Hineri or arm twist
Tenkai nage (uchi) = Rotary throw (inside), also known as Kaiten Nage (Uchi)
Tenkan = Circular movement to redirect partners power and dissipate force of attack
Tenkan Ashi = Forward step backward with rear foot and pivot on front foot
Tenshin = A movement where Nage retreats 45 degrees away from the attack
Toma = A great distance
Tori (1) = Grab
Tori (2) = Person who is throwing or executing the technique, also known as Nage
Torifune = Rowing exercise, moving voiced meditation for breathing and posture, also known as Funekogi Undo
Tsuba = Hand guard for sword or bokken
Tsugi Ashi = Sliding step (shuffle)
Tsuka = Handle of sword or bokken
Tsuki = A straight punch or thrust usually to mid-section parallel to ground
Tsukuri = Positioning or setting up for a throw
Uchi (1) = Inside
Uchi (2) = To strike
Uchi Deshi = A live in student
Uchi Komi = To take a step forward and then strike
Ude Furi Undo = Arm swinging spin exercise
Ude Gaeshi = Arm turn, 7th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Hiji Waza)
Ude Garame = Arm twist
Ude Higishi = Arm smashing, also known as Hiji Jime or elbow lock
Ude Hineri = Arm twist, 9th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Hiji Waza), also known as Kaiten Nage
Ude Nobashi = Arm stretch, see Gokyo
Ude Osae = Arm pin, see Ikkyo
Ude Tori Undo = Forward extension exercise
Uke = Person being thrown or receiving technique
Ukemi = Breakfall, receiving with or through the body
Uki Waza = Floating techniques (4th set of techniques from Tomiki Kihon No Kata)
Undo = Exercise or drill
Unsoko = Foor movement
Ura = Rear
Ushiro = Backwards or behind
Ushiro Ate = Back attack, 5th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Atemi Waza), also known as Ushiro Udoroshi
Ushiro Kubishime = Neck choke from the rear
Ushiro Morote Tori = Two hands grab one wrist from behind
Ushiro Ryokata Tori = Shoulders grabbed from rear
Ushiro Ryote Tori = Both hands grabbed from the rear
Ushiro Tekubi Tori = Wrist grabbed from rear
Ushiro Tekubi Tori Zenshin Undo = Downward extension exercise
Ushiro Udoroshi = Pull down from behind, in Tomiki Aikido known as Ushiro Ate
Ushiro Ukemi = Backward breakfalls
Wa = Harmony, accord and co-ordination
Wake Gamae = Sword stance with sword pointed down and back
Waki Gatame = Arm lock, 10th technique of Tomiki Kihon No Kata (Hiji Waza), see also Rokyo
Wakizashi = Short sword
Waza = Techniques
Yamae = Stop
Yari = Spear
Yoko = Side
Yokomen = Side of the head
Yokomen Uchi = Outside vertical strike to side of head
Yoko ukemi = Sidewards breakfall
Yonkyo = 4th teaching, Tekubi Osae or forearm pin, also known as Kimi Osae, Dai Yonkyo, Yonkyo Tekubi Osae
Yonkyo Tekubi Osae = See Yonkyo
Yubi = Fingers
Yudansha = Senior grades (dan grades)
Zanshin = Balanced and aware state
Zarei = Bow from sitting position
Zazen = Meditation posture and exercise employed in Zen Buddhism
Zempo Kaiten Ukemi = Forward rolling breakfall, also known as Mae Ukemi, Zempo Ukemi Undo and Zempo Kaiten Undo
Zempo Kaiten Undo = Forward rolling exercise, also known as Mae Ukemi, Zempo Ukemi Undo and Zempo Kaiten Ukemi
Zempo Ukemi Undo = Forward rolling exercise, also known as Mae Ukemi Zempo Kaiten Undo and Zempo Kaiten Ukemi
Zen = Intuitive discipline of enlightenment derived from older schools of Buddhism
Zengo Undo = Arm extension static pivot exercise
Zenshin = Moving forwards
Zori = Sandals worn off the mat to help keep the mat clean

Sunday, October 11, 2009

How to to run a remote desktop from Linux

Access your Linux machine from anywhere

KDE's VNC client is called KRDC, and its best feature is undoubtedly the real-time view scaling

Not only do remote desktops enable you to access your old familiar machine from anywhere on the internet, they also enable you to build a multi-desktop, multi-user environment out of a single machine that doesn't necessary even need a screen.

This is a great solution on netbooks, for example, where you may occasionally need the extra horsepower of a full-blown PC. Just connect to the server from your netbook desktop and you've got a full desktop on top of a small one.

1. VNC

There are several ways to run a remote desktop from Linux. The X server itself was designed to run remotely, and you can still forward windows from a local server to a remote one with relative ease, especially if you use SSH.

But the X protocol is inefficient, and only fast enough for general use if you're connected to the same network as the server.

A far better alternative is FreeNX. This breaks window and cursor movement up into a series of commands that can be transferred much more efficiently than X, and the remote desktop is much more responsive as a result.

But there's a problem with FreeNX: It can be a complete pain to install, and there seems to be a different method for every distribution we look at. The day FreeNX becomes easy to install is the day we'll write instructions on how to get it to work. This leaves us with VNC.

VNC sends chunks of compressed image data rather than interpreting any drawing routings, and as a result sits half-way between the X server and FreeNX for efficiency. But it does have one big advantage, and this is that you can find VNC clients everywhere.

Many mobile phones, PDAs and netbooks will have a VNC client available, and both Windows and OS X have free and paid-for client applications that can connect to VNC running on your Linux box. From a Linux perspective, KDE and Gnome both have built-in support for connecting to VNC servers.

2. Running the server

There are several variations of VNC, but our favourite is called TightVNC, which includes a few performance improvements over the original VNC protocol.

On your server, you should be able to install the tightvncserver package from the package manager.

To start a VNC session, you need to open a command line and type vncserver :1. This will launch a new server which will be attached to the second (:1) graphics console on the machine.

The first would be :0, but this will be the current display on that machine, unless it's running in pure console mode. Any other machine running on the LAN will now be able to connect to the VNC server by using the IP address of the server followed by :5901.

As VNC uses just one port (5901) you can easily tunnel this port to a remote connection through SSH.

This is a great solution if you want to access your Linux box from the wilds of the internet, as it means you only need to leave the relatively secure SSH port open (port 22), with just the SSH server facing the internet. The VNC server is safely tucked away behind the firewall.

An SSH tunnel is a little like a wormhole. It takes the data from port 5901 on the server, for instance, tunnels this through the standard SSH data connection on port 22, and reconstitutes the data on the client at the local port 5901.

All you then have to do is use a VNC client to connect to localhost:5901 rather than the remote IP address.

Thursday, October 8, 2009

Loopback Connections

A common problem that some customers encounter when using a NAT router is that they want to be able to access their web site from within their local network, but their NAT router does not support "loopback" connections. This prevents them from being able to reach their own services, even though external visitors are able to connect.
The Problem

Let's say, for example, that we have a local network consisting of two machines behind a NAT router with the router in turn connected to a DSL or Cable modem. Each of the two machines will be assigned an IP address by the NAT router within a "local" IP space such as the 192.168 block. The NAT router in turn is assigned an IP address by the ISP within the "public" space. When you setup a host or domain within our system, it is this public IP address that the host/domain points to.

The following diagram shows the example network's two computers behind a NAT router:
Simple network diagram

Simple network diagram

In this diagram, the "public" address is and the NAT router has a LAN/"private" address of The other computers on the network are assigned numbers within this private space.

Now, let's say that we have registered the domain "example.com" with the host "www.example.com" mapped to this public IP address. When somebody out on the internet attempts to connect to www.example.com, they end up connecting to the WAN interface on the NAT router. The NAT router in turn "routes" the packets to an internal machine based on the port that the connection came in on.

The loopback problem arises when somebody using the "Work Station" computer wants to access the "Web Server" computer. If they try to access the computer via the hostname www.example.com, the NAT router will attempt to route this out its WAN interface and then back in. In most cases this will either fail or return the web interface for the router itself because the router doesn't understand what the user is trying to do.
The Solutions
Configure port forwarding

First, before trying any other solutions, you should configure port forwarding on your router. Some routers experience loopback errors until the correct ports are forwarded, especially when running a webserver. By adding an entry on port 80, your router will be correctly configured to allow access to your webserver. You can learn more about routers and port forwarding here, and visit PortForward.com for detailed guides on how to configure your router's forwarding features.
Check security settings

Some routers also have security options that cause the loopback error to occur. Check your router's settings for references to local connections, loopback connections, NAT redirection, and so on, then toggle them to see if this fixes the issue. The WRT54G, for example, has a variety of security checkboxes on its Security tab, one of which disables NAT redirections - and therefore causes loopback errors.
Modify your HOSTS file

If you have ensured the port forwarding in your router is correct and have enabled loopback redirections in the router's configuration, the device may be incapable of performing loopback connections properly. If this is the case, you can edit your HOSTS file on the local computers in your network to circumvent the problem. The HOSTS file is a legacy file from the days of ARPANET, before DNS existed, where users had to download latest list of networked machines. (You can learn more here.)

On a standard UNIX/Linux system (including Apple's Mac OS X) the HOSTS file will generaly be found at


On Windows systems the location of this file varies.

* Windows 9x - (x):\Windows\Hosts
* Windows XP - (x):\Windows\System32\Drivers\etc\Hosts
* Windows 2000 - (x):\WinNT\System32\Drivers\etc\Hosts

Regardless of the system, the format of this file should be essentially the same. Using the above network example you would want to add the following lines to this file: router.example.com www.example.com foo.example.com

Now, any time you use a web browser or any other application to connect to www.example.com, the hostname will resolve locally via the HOSTS file instead of resolving via the DNS and you'll connect via the local IP address. At the same time, anyone not on your network will continue to use DNS to resolve this hostname and will connect via the public IP address.

(Note: If you use Spybot-Search & Destroy or other anti-spyware applications, you may notice hundreds or even thousands of entries in your HOSTS file set to These entries protect you from accidentally visiting malicious websites by redirecting your connection to your own machine instead of the potentially dangerous external server. You may safely ignore these entries.)

Monday, October 5, 2009

Several Linux Shell Commands

sudo run command as sudo more access

sudo ps aux | grep -ri "script/server 8040" list proccesses for specific port

cd change dir

ls -la directory structure

alias Create an alias
apropos Search Help manual pages (man -k)
awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
break Exit from a loop
builtin Run a shell builtin
bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)

cal Display a calendar
case Conditionally perform a command
cat Display the contents of a file
cd Change Directory
cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
chgrp Change group ownership
chmod Change access permissions
chown Change file owner and group
chroot Run a command with a different root directory
cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear Clear terminal screen
cmp Compare two files
comm Compare two sorted files line by line
command Run a command - ignoring shell functions
continue Resume the next iteration of a loop
cp Copy one or more files to another location
cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces
cut Divide a file into several parts

date Display or change the date & time
dc Desk Calculator
dd Data Dump - Convert and copy a file
ddrescue Data recovery tool
declare Declare variables and give them attributes
df Display free disk space
diff Display the differences between two files
diff3 Show differences among three files
dig DNS lookup
dir Briefly list directory contents
dircolors Colour setup for `ls'
dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path
dirs Display list of remembered directories
du Estimate file space usage

echo Display message on screen
egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
eject Eject removable media
enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands
env Environment variables
ethtool Ethernet card settings
eval Evaluate several commands/arguments
exec Execute a command
exit Exit the shell
expand Convert tabs to spaces
export Set an environment variable
expr Evaluate expressions

false Do nothing, unsuccessfully
fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk
fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
file Determine file type
find Search for files that meet a desired criteria
fmt Reformat paragraph text
fold Wrap text to fit a specified width.
for Expand words, and execute commands
format Format disks or tapes
free Display memory usage
fsck File system consistency check and repair
ftp File Transfer Protocol
function Define Function Macros

gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)
getopts Parse positional parameters
grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groups Print group names a user is in
gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)

hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument
head Output the first part of file(s)
history Command History
hostname Print or set system name

id Print user and group id's
if Conditionally perform a command
ifconfig Configure a network interface
import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install Copy files and set attributes

join Join lines on a common field

kill Stop a process from running

less Display output one screen at a time
let Perform arithmetic on shell variables
ln Make links between files
local Create variables
locate Find files
logname Print current login name
logout Exit a login shell
look Display lines beginning with a given string
lpc Line printer control program
lpr Off line print
lprint Print a file
lprintd Abort a print job
lprintq List the print queue
lprm Remove jobs from the print queue
ls List information about file(s)
lsof List open files

make Recompile a group of programs
man Help manual
mkdir Create new folder(s)
mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
mknod Make block or character special files
more Display output one screen at a time
mount Mount a file system
mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files
mv Move or rename files or directories

netstat Networking information
nice Set the priority of a command or job
nl Number lines and write files
nohup Run a command immune to hangups
nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively

passwd Modify a user password
paste Merge lines of files
pathchk Check file name portability
ping Test a network connection
popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr Prepare files for printing
printcap Printer capability database
printenv Print environment variables
printf Format and print data
ps Process status
pushd Save and then change the current directory
pwd Print Working Directory

quota Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage
quotactl Set disk quotas

ram ram disk device
rcp Copy files between two machines.
read read a line from standard input
readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
remsync Synchronize remote files via email
return Exit a shell function
rm Remove files
rmdir Remove folder(s)
rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)

screen Terminal window manager
scp Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff Merge two files interactively
sed Stream Editor
select Accept keyboard input
seq Print numeric sequences
set Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp Secure File Transfer Program
shift Shift positional parameters
shopt Shell Options
shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
sleep Delay for a specified time
sort Sort text files
source Run commands from a file `.'
split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace Trace system calls and signals
su Substitute user identity
sum Print a checksum for a file
symlink Make a new name for a file
sync Synchronize data on disk with memory

tail Output the last part of files
tar Tape ARchiver
tee Redirect output to multiple files
test Evaluate a conditional expression
time Measure Program running time
times User and system times
touch Change file timestamps
top List processes running on the system
traceroute Trace Route to Host
trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true Do nothing, successfully
tsort Topological sort
tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
type Describe a command

ulimit Limit user resources
umask Users file creation mask
umount Unmount a device
unalias Remove an alias
uname Print system information
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq Uniquify files
units Convert units from one scale to another
unset Remove variable or function names
unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
until Execute commands (until error)
useradd Create new user account
usermod Modify user account
users List users currently logged in
uuencode Encode a binary file
uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode

v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
vi Text Editor

watch Execute/display a program periodically
wc Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis Report all known instances of a command
which Locate a program file in the user's path.
while Execute commands
who Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un')
Wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP

xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
yes Print a string until interrupted

. Run a command script in the current shell
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